Starch

 

Starch is a polysaccharide of plant origin. It is digestible in the human GI tract and therefore has great importance in human nutrition.

Starch makes an efficient energy store in plants. It does not have sweet taste like monosaccharides and disaccharides. The plants store starch in cereal seeds and tubers (eg. potatoes) in the form of starch grains that are specific to a particular plant species.

Grains contain 66-85%, pulses contain 60% and potatoes contain 20-30% starch. Unripe fruit contains starch that breaks down to simple sugars during maturation.

Starch is made up of two main types, both are made of long chains of glucose. These are amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is made of linear chains, and amilopectin has a branched structure. The amylose – amylopectin ratio depends on the type of plant. The majority of the starch has a 15-30% amylose.

Amylose and amylopectin in the starch granules are in semicrystalline form that makes the granules water-insoluble. Upon cooking this structure is degraded, and the polysaccharide chains become available to digestive enzymes in the human gut.

 

RELATED POSTS ...
Glucose syrup
views 718
  Glucose syrup is a purified aqueous solution of nutritive saccharides obtained from edible starches having a dextrose equivalent greater than 20. It is primarily a food industry in...
Scoville scale
views 436
  The Scoville scale is used to sensory evaluate the pungency (spicy heat) of chili peppers and other spicy foods. The scale is reported in Scoville heat units (SHU), a function o...
Sulforaphane
views 496
  Sulforaphane belongs to a group of plant substances called isothiocyanates which have a high biological activity. Sulforaphane is the strongest inducer of liver detoxification enzy...
Glossary
views 772
  A aspartate     aspartic acid B body fat percentage C ciguatera poisoning D dicamba     diet     diphenylamine G glucose syrup L local food M ...
Aspartate
views 492
  Aspartate is the salt of aspartic acid, or aspartic acid in dissociated form. Aspartate is often involved in the active sites of proteins. The negatively charged aspartate can i...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *